The University of Arizona College of Medicine – Phoenix opened its four-year medical education program in 2007 as an expansion to the downtown Phoenix UA College of Medicine program that began in 1992. The original program offered third- and fourth-year medical students the opportunity to complete their training at Phoenix-area hospitals.

As early as 1983, Phoenix-area medical students at the UA College of Medicine were taking required clerkships in internal medicine, pediatrics, neurology, obstetrics and gynecology and family practice, as well as clinical electives.

In August 2004, the Arizona Board of Regents approved an agreement to expand the operations of the UA College of Medicine – Phoenix to a four-year program. An unprecedented statewide collaboration of the Arizona Board of Regents, the City of Phoenix, the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) and Phoenix-area teaching hospitals, guided by a governor-appointed commission, led to the establishment of the Phoenix Biomedical Campus in downtown Phoenix.

The property, donated by the City of Phoenix, was then the site of TGen and historic buildings that once housed Phoenix Union High School. Following extensive renovations, the buildings became home to the University of Arizona College of Medicine – Phoenix, which admitted its first class of medical students in July, 2007.

The Phoenix Biomedical Campus has grown quickly, now including the Arizona Biomedical Collaborative, a joint research facility with Arizona State University and expansions to the UA colleges of Pharmacy and Public Health. The Arizona Legislature allocated funds for the expansion of the biomedical campus in Phoenix, allowing for the construction of the Health Sciences Education Building which opened in 2012. That expansion allows the university to expand its class size and further address the critical need for physicians in Arizona. Looking toward the future, the campus will only continue to grow. The University of Arizona Cancer Center at Dignity Health St. Joseph's opened in the fall of 2015, and the college is preparing to officially open the Biomedical Sciences Partnership Building in February of 2017.